This is hardly surprising, given that settlers from Great Britain or Ireland would have brought with them their folk games, as would members of the British army and navy who were stationed in Canada. The claim has been made that Windsor , Nova Scotia , was the birthplace of ice hockey. The passage does not, however, provide much detail as to how the game was played or whether skates were used. Some of the earliest evidence for ice hockey in Canada was recorded by British officers, who brought the sport with them.
In , for example, researchers discovered two letters written by Sir John Franklin in , during one of his attempts to find the Northwest Passage.
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This has led some to argue that Deline, in the Northwest Territories , was the birthplace of hockey in Canada. It is unlikely, therefore, that this was the first game of ice hockey. There is also evidence that in , games of ice hockey were played by British soldiers on Chippewa Creek in the Niagara region although this evidence only came to light in Hockey was also played in Kingston , Ontario, in Sir Arthur Freeling, then a first lieutenant stationed in Kingston, organized games for his men and wrote about them in his diary.
Like Franklin and Levinge, Freeling was a British officer who would have learned the game in his home country. Freeling was recalled to England in , and it would be a few decades before ice hockey was played again in Kingston. Despite this, Kingston was long held to be the birthplace of ice hockey, owing in large part to efforts by Captain James T. The decision was later rescinded, and the Hall opened in Toronto.
While few reports of specific games exist, there is also no doubt that ice hockey was played on a regular basis in Halifax and Dartmouth , Nova Scotia, prior to It is therefore clear that games resembling ice hockey were played in Canada in the 19th century, likely brought to the country by settlers or military personnel from the British Isles. On that date, the Montreal Gazette made the following announcement:.
Good fun may be expected, as some of the players are reputed to be exceedingly expert at the game.
Some fears have been expressed on the part of intending spectators that accidents were likely to occur through the ball flying about in too lively a manner, to the imminent danger of lookers on, but we understand that the game will be played with a flat circular piece of wood, thus preventing all danger of its leaving the surface of the ice. Subscribers will be admitted on presentation of their tickets. The game, played between two teams of nine players, ended in a 2—1 win for the team captained by James George Aylwin Creighton originally from Nova Scotia over the team captained by Charles Edward Torrance.
He is credited with organizing the first recorded indoor ice hockey match at Montreal, Quebec, Canada in He helped popularize the sport in Montreal and later in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada after he moved to Ottawa in where he served for 48 years as the Law Clerk to the Canadian Senate. Photo dated March in Ottawa, Ontario. In , the IIHF officially recognized this as the first game of organized ice hockey. Was this truly the first organized ice hockey game? It is likely the rules originated with members of the local British garrison, who would have been using English hockey rules.
However, this ignores the use of bungs in England that began in the midth century. Newspaper reports include a list of all the players but did not provide the identity of the goal scorers, the duration of the game, or whether there was a referee or umpire, or goalies. It is also known that the players were not wearing uniforms.
In contrast, there exist a few detailed reports of games of ice hockey or bandy from English newspapers in the early s, which often included the names of goal scorers, and, in at least one case, even the times of the goals. These were clearly well-organized matches.
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Another exhibition game was played two weeks later, this time with uniforms. The identity of the teams was also more specific, with the Montreal Football Club wearing its usual colours facing a team from the Victoria Skating Club. Several of the original English field hockey rules had been directly adapted from English football soccer rules. The offside rule, for example, was exactly the same — and not inspired by rugby , as is often claimed. Other rules also came from football, including rules against carrying the ball and how to put the ball back in play after it had gone out of bounds the rule being different depending on whether it went off to the side or behind the goal line.
The Montreal version also omitted several HA rules, notably those describing the stick, how goals were scored, the size of the field and the number of players on each side. Canadians also brought back the flat disc that had been adopted in the midth century when the word "hockey" itself came into use. Soft rubber balls lasted longer than cork bungs and were also less damaging to shins and ankles than wood, the traditional material of bandy balls.
Canadians made other significant rule changes early on.
In , for example, the number of players was reduced from nine to seven. The first truly competitive ice hockey games were played on 26 and 27 January , when three teams competed in the first edition of the Montreal Winter Carnival hockey tournament.
Spalding used flimsy evidence—namely the claims of one man, mining engineer Abner Graves—to come up with the Doubleday origin story. As it turns out, the real history of baseball is a little more complicated than the Doubleday legend. References to games resembling baseball in the United States date back to the 18th century. By the time of the American Revolution , variations of such games were being played on schoolyards and college campuses across the country.
They became even more popular in newly industrialized cities where men sought work in the midth century. One of them—volunteer firefighter and bank clerk Alexander Joy Cartwright—would codify a new set of rules that would form the basis for modern baseball, calling for a diamond-shaped infield, foul lines and the three-strike rule.
On the other hand, the Public Works Administration and Works Progress Administration constructed thousands of sports fields, swimming pools, and other athletic facilities.
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American athletes at the first Olympics in came from elite eastern colleges, yet squads in the early s had many working-class ethnic athletes, including Native American Jim Thorpe , gold medalist in the pentathlon and the decathlon at the games. Louis in , but drew only thirteen nations. The summer games featured the first athletic village. Babe Didrikson starred, winning two gold medals and a silver in track. An all-around talent, she was the greatest female American athlete of the century.
Before the games at Berlin, there was widespread support for a boycott to protest nazism, but the movement failed. The African American Jesse Owens starred, capturing four gold medals in track, yet returned stateside to a racist society. Spectator sports grew rapidly in the prosperous s and s.
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There were more major sports, the number of franchises rose, and television enabled millions to watch live events. Air travel facilitated major league baseball's opening up of new markets in , when the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee, and again five years later, when the New York Giants and Dodgers moved to the West Coast. This expansion was accompanied by the construction of arenas and stadiums by local governments to keep or attract sports franchises. Television broadcasts promoted growing interest in college football, and created a huge boom in professional football during the s.
By the early s, twice as many households watched pro football as baseball. Television also increased interest in golf and tennis, making celebrities of golfers Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus and tennis player Jimmy Connors. Public tastes were broadened, especially through the American Broadcasting Company's Wide World of Sports, which went on the air in , and became the longest running series on television. Professional athletes became empowered through their unions. Marvin Miller, president of the Major League Baseball Players Association, which began in the late s to secure higher salary minimums, grievance procedures, increased pensions, and representation by agents.
The union secured salary arbitration in and achieved free agency in Major college sports prospered after the war. National College Athletic Association NCAA football gained lucrative television contracts, and attendance reached forty million by Basketball, a much lower cost sport, had to recover from the point shaving scandal of By the early s, however, the NCAA basketball champion-ships became a prime annual television event, along with the World Series; the NFL's Super Bowl, first played in ; and car racing's premier event, the Indianapolis Race was the central issue in postwar sport.
From the late nineteenth century, African Americans had been barred from competing against whites in most professional sports.
experiencetheleap.com/5197-ropa-para.php This custom was shattered by the pivotal integration of Major League Baseball following the hiring. Pro football had integrated one year earlier, and the NBA followed in Desegregation resulted from such factors as the Second Great Migration ; African American participation in World War II; political pressure from civil rights workers and politicians like New York's Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia; prointegration columns by African American, communist, and mainstream sportswriters; and the outstanding achievements of Jesse Owens and Joe Louis.
Integration moved slowly, and college football teams in the Deep South did not desegregate until the late s. Women's sports began to boom in the s, as a result of the growing interest of young women in sport, feminism, and improved health, and in reaction to demands for greater American success in international sport.
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