Kerr, Michael. LeDoux, Joseph. New York: Simon and Schuster. MacLean, Paul D. New York: Plenum Press. Marcuson, Margaret. McGoldrick, Monica. Genograms in Family Assessment. Noone, Robert J. Papero, Daniel.
- Steps Toward an Integrative Clinical Systems Psychology?
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Bowen Family Systems Theory. Parsons, George and Leas, Speed B. The Alban Institute. Pert, Candace. New York: Scribner. Richardson, Ronald.
Overview of Bowen Theory
Family Ties That Bind. Vancouver: Self-Counsel Press.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. Published by Ronald Richardson. Riley, Ruth and Wiseman, Kathy. Rosenbaum, Lilian. Biofeedback Frontiers. Sager, Ruth Riley.
Editor Sapolsky, Robert M. Schara, Andrea Maloney. Your Mindful Compass. Sheldrake, Rupert. The Presence of the Past. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press. Steinke, Peter. Congregational Leadership in Anxious Times. Stevens, R. Paul, and Collins, Phil. Edited by Eileen Pendagast. Thomas, Lewis. The Lives of a Cell. New York: Penguin Books. Titelman, Peter. New York: The Haworth Press. Titelman, Peter, and Reed, Sydney.
The Bowen Center: The Family Emotional System
Visualization of the core concept of object relations theory as a matrix: the configuration of the self in context of objects, with positively and negatively experienced properties Kernberg, Hypothetically, in a systemic view the reconfiguration of this basic affective-cognitive schemata or matrix is optimized in the unconscious domain by principles of self-organization. The positive and negative experiences are depicted as basins of attraction, separated by a repellor-like wall of different shape.
This shape of the surface determines the mode of information processing: an easy shift from positive to negative emotions and vice versa is possible by the low structuration of the landscape in early stages of development undeveloped matrix — single negative experiences easily induce a generalized state of negativity. This is a feature of emotional instability. Borderline psychodynamics mapped to a landscape of object related self-representation: Emotionally positive components and negatively loaded components of the self-image have differently strong attraction that is indicated by the deepness and steepness of the valley of the potential landscape.
The respective shape determines the stability of the current mental state indicated by the black ball. During development of the person the structure of the landscape becomes more accurate A,B. An intermediate level of development is characteristic for borderline personality structure C. Reproduction with permission of Schattauer Publisher.
Both concepts could be integrated by a graph-theoretically oriented conception of the representational matrix.
By this method, not only general nomothetical models could be developed but also individualized idiographic models. This development would provide a more valid and coherent conception of affective-cognitive dynamics. In this section, we emphasize mental dynamics that is driven by emotions and motivations. In this view, PA was probably the first school in clinical work that focused on the pathogenetic power of emotions and drives. Here we explore these approaches briefly in addition to above mentioned positions. Theoretically he was under the influence of physics of dynamic processes of that time thermodynamics, electrodynamics, mechanics.
Some of his basic concepts that are relevant for a systemic view are:. Therefore, it is also a source of misunderstandings, reinterpretations, etc. It is a fruitful metaphorical import of a concept of thermodynamics into neuropsychiatry referring to the organismic process of mapping the chaotic external world into an ordered internal map of the world on the basis of an action cycle. But still, for pure substrate-free psychology the question remains is: free energy of what? Of probability distribution of immaterial beliefs and expectations? But how can we measure the beliefs?
Probabilistic measures are o. There are several hidden epistemological problems with this concept. Both potentially opposing inputs to the ego have to be coordinated by the ego regarding the demands, frictions and options of the actual external world. The ego is also coupled with unconscious defense mechanisms that by filter operations protect the conscious ego if the pressure or tension of internal and external conflicts — superego versus id or appetence-appetence, approach-avoidance, etc.
In the case of chronic conflicts, clinical syndromes can occur. In order to translate the structure model into a diagrammatic cyber-systemic model, blocks have to be distinguished that are reconnected by arrows although Freud did not demarcate the three instances in his diagrams. By a block diagram, the structural model can be transformed into three coupled control loops — the demands of the environment are related to actualized demands of the id and to demands of the superego. This means that two intrapsychic control loops with potentially two antagonistic set points converge to the ego as the central regulator.
Steps Toward an Integrative Clinical Systems Psychology
These loops are connected and overlapping. In case of conflicts, defense mechanisms are activated by the ego, whereas in case of congruence, the behavior is congruent with the environmental demands. In parallel, a demand from the superego evokes a pressure to the ego 3 that in consequence can suppress this demand 4a or the intensity of the desire 4b.
Finally, a certain behavioral reaction occurs 5. If a conflict between demands of the id aggression! Several other translations of PA into systems concepts appear to be fruitful, as it was claimed by psychoanalytic authors already Galatzer-Levy, ; Seligman, He dichotomizes the mental domain and distinguishes mainly the terms structure and dynamics that characterize the mental system as a processor that can process information with low coherence in case of mental disorders.
groupect.staging.ctrlweb.ca/42257.php He describes syndromes in terms of properties of the cognitive structure and the emotional-motivational dynamics:. Deformations of the structure are weak structural changes that are compatible with subclinical everyday behavior. In case of pathological change, the structure shows autonomizations or even disintegrations as they can be observed in psychotic patients. For persons with obsessive disorders and also for delusions a change-resistent fixation of the structure is assumed.
In other mental disorders destructurations and even simplifications of the structure are prominent. In pathological cases they appear as stronger and persistent derailments. A manic syndrome is seen as a dynamic expansion whereas in case of depression the derailment is classified as a dynamic restriction.
Also distorsions German: Verwerfungen are properties that should classify different types of dynamics. The term discontinuity stands for disruptions of thinking in schizophrenic patients — and dynamic insufficiency classifies thinking abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia. A basic dual structure of the mind, similar to Janzarik, was also assumed by the psychoanalyst and psychiatrist Luc Ciompi who used concepts of systems science for explanatory purposes.
His model is based on research in schizophrenic patients regarding their different long-term dynamics of symptoms — in some patients they disappeared after a schizophrenic episode or reoccurred after a while or in other cases, a residual dysfunction persisted Ciompi, In some patients the affective disorders of schizophrenic patients were so obvious that he hypothesized that affective forces determine the cognitive domain. He distinguishes interest, fear, anger, sadness and joy as basic affects that are involved in the formation of cognitive processing and cognitive structures as products.
In line with this, he emphasizes the fractal similarity of affect dynamics between the micro-level and the macro-level of time scales. The relation between expected situation and perceived situation can explain the occurrence of emotions — if the expectations of positive events are higher than reality, anger, anxiety or sadness will arise. In case of lower expectations than reality presents, joy will come up.
In principle, this circuit already was constructed by Leon Festinger who studied the relation between expectations and perceptions and by John Dollard and Neal E.
The Impact of Separation from Family: A Timely and Timeless Lesson
Miller in context of the frustration theory of aggression Dollard et al. After some decades of research activities guided by this paradigm, a silent period followed, but today the crucial difference between expected or predicted stimulus and perceived stimulus is debated again by the prediction error paradigm Montague et al. The control loop model applied for explanation of the occurrence of pleasure and unpleasure anxiety, aggression, sadness by the congruence or incongruence of expectation compared with perception. Also, expected versus perceived outcome of planned action can induce emotions according to this circuit.
To give a clinical example: change-motivated alcoholics, for further life, plan to drink no alcohol anymore.
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